DARE2X gathers expert European partners to disrupt the ammonia (NH3) production landscape by enabling sorption-enhanced plasma-catalytic NH3 synthesis. Ammonia is the second most produced primary chemical in the world and its centralised production is called the Haber-Bosch process, which is based on the transformation of natural gas (fossil fuel) at high pressure and temperature. Replacing the Haber-Bosch process with a sustainable alternative for the production of NH3, will contribute to decarbonising the European industry, helping the European Union’s goal of a competitive economy with net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.


The ground-breaking approach proposed by DARE2X to the NH3 production will help ensuring the European leadership in the production of this key chemical that is widely used by the chemical and fertilizer industry. The cost-effective plasma-catalytic NH3 synthesis technology will be a step in the production of one of the most important future green fuels. Which is likely to replace part of the current fossil fuel, helping the decarbonisation of the transport sector value chain and become a vital global export commodity. If successfully commercialised, this technology will provide entirely scalable NH3 production at near ambient temperature and pressure, with highly flexible production output.


• Identify the alternative catalyst materials to the state-of-the-art active sites of Ni and Co, using density functional theory (DFT) alloy screening combined with surface plasma micro-kinetics (idealise reactor configurations).
• Optimise the structured catalyst/sorption interaction in material-gradated plasma reactor, using multiscale modelling simulations (from the atoms to continuum).
• Setting up reactor digital twin, predicting the performance for various operating conditions, as well as different catalytic interfaces.
• Develop a sorption material with high NH3 capacity and stability to both plasma and regeneration cycles.
• The developed sorption material should exhibit effective ammonia desorption with low energy consumption.
Evaluation & Exploitation
• Perform market analysis to enable economic and environmental feasibility of sorption-enhanced plasma catalytic reactor.
• Identify social impact of implementing DARE2X solution and from that make a dissemination and communication strategy to enable social acceptance of the DARE2X technology.
• Develop an alternative catalyst with higher activity than Ni or Co supported single metal catalysts.
• Develop upscale catalyst production procedure.
• Investigate catalysts with little to no use of critical raw material.
Plasma Technology
• Design a scalable plasma reactor to efficiently perform plasma-catalytic NH3 synthesis.
• Develop combined sorption and catalyst structures to enhance plasma-catalytic activity for NH3.
• Develop an sorption-enhanced plasma reactor, integrating sorption and catalyst materials structures for use in a single stage configuration, able to produce and separate NH3 simultaneously.


DARE2X will be developed through 5 technical Work Packages (WP) and 2 transversal WP.

WP1- Project Management and Coordination
Led by DTI. This WP will ensure efficient and effective project implementation according to time and budget, and in compliance with the ethics requirements.
WP2 - Catalyst Development
Led by DTI. New catalysts will be developed through different steps: optimize low-CRM catalyst for plasma reactor; increase NH3 synthesis performance by incorporating sorption material into catalyst structure; improve catalyst activity with alkali metal promoters; and finally upscale catalyst production for its validation in the plasma-reactor.
WP3 - Development of sorption materials
Led by HB. Stable NH3 sorption materials will be developed for collection of NH3, enabling sorption-enhanced reactors. Sorption materials production will be upscaled for WP4-WP5. A sorption unit able to absorb and desorb NH3 will be finally developed.
WP4 – Development of plasma-catalytic ammonia synthesis
Led by UOL. A scalable, multi-cell plasma system to accelerate catalyst evaluation will be developed. A ground-breaking approach combining in situ plasma diagnostics, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), plasma chemical kinetic modelling and catalyst characterisation would enable to obtain a full picture of reaction mechanism and pathways in the plasma-catalytic NH3 synthesis.
WP5 – Integration and Validation
Led by DTI. This WP will investigate the plasma-sorption configuration with higher efficiency towards NH3 synthesis. The integration of plasma-catalytic NH3 synthesis with the sorption materials developed in WP3 will be done on a single-stage unit configuration, to simultaneously produce and separate NH3. The second objective of this WP is the validation of the sorption-enhanced plasma-catalytic concept for an improved energy efficiency.
WP6 - Economical, Environmental and Social Readiness Assessment
Led by ENSO. This WP will determine the environmental performance and economic profile of the NH3 production at low-pressure and long-term H2 storage strategy. This will help evaluate the potential environmental gains in relation to the current NH3 production and H2 storage. LOM will lead the techno and economic feasibility study of upscaling DARE2X reactor technology and the social acceptability and readiness evaluation of the solution.
Work package WP7 – Dissemination, Communication and Exploitation
Led by LOM. A targeted, effective, and high-impact communication, dissemination, and outreach strategy will be defined, to connect the project with all internal and external possible beneficiaries and interested parties. This WP will analyse the market opportunities of the Key Exploitable Results and settle an exploitation strategy that will enable the project to reach higher Technology Readiness Levels. A multilateral cooperation based on knowledge and best practices exchanges among the project and all relevant stakeholders in the NH3 production, storage and its sectors of applications will be established.